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Primary Sources

Kardash, William A. I Fought for Canada in Spain… Toronto: New Era Publishers, n.d.
This is a first-hand account by a Canadian who fought in Spain, William Kardash. He argues that fighting for the Spanish people was tantamount to defending Canadian people, and so illustrates the international threat of fascism. An abridged version of this pamphlet was circulated during Kardash’s election campaign: he was elected to the Manitoba legislature in 1941.

Smith, A.E. Hello Canada! Toronto: Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, n.d.
This pamphlet, published and circulated in Canada during the Spanish Civil War, describes A.E. Smith’s travels around Spain to visit Canadian volunteers. It also includes an introduction by Ted Allan himself. It is useful as historical context and as another form of media and witnessing that circulated during the war.

Watts, Jean. “This is EAQ Madrid Calling.” Daily Clarion 27 April 1937: 5.
Jean Watts reported alongside Ted Allan in Spain. In this article for the Canadian Communist paper, she describes a night of broadcasting to a North American audience. She represents radio as an intimate, immediate form that can bridge the physical and ethical gap between Canada and Spain.

Works Cited

Allan, Ted. “A Gun is Watered.” Monthly Literary Supplement of New Masses 26.3 (11 Jan. 1938): 25-28.

–––. “Lisa: A Story.” Harper’s 177.2 (July 1938): 187-193.

Boyden, Joseph. Three Day Road. Toronto: Penguin Canada, 2006.

Casanova, Julián. A Short History of the Spanish Civil War. London: I.B. Tauris & Co., 2013.

Findley, Timothy. The Wars. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1977.

Harrison, Charles Yale. Generals Die in Bed. New York: William Morrow & Co, 1930.

Hoar, Victor. The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion: The Canadian Contingent in the Spanish Civil War. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1969.

Lukács, Georg. Essays on Realism. Ed. Rodney Livingstone. Trans. David Fernbach. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1980.

“Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion.” Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada, n.d.

Peck, Mary. Red Moon over Spain: Canadian Media Reaction to the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Ottawa: Steel Rail, 1988.

Petrou, Michael. Renegades: Canadians in the Spanish Civil War. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008.

Rogoyska, Jane. Gerda Taro: Inventing Robert Capa. London: Jonathan Cape, 2013.

Schaber, Irme. “The Eye of Solidarity: The Photographer Gerda Taro and her Work During the Spanish Civil War, 1936-37.” Gerda Taro. Eds. Irma Schaber, Richard Whelan, and Kristen Lubben. New York: International Centre of Photography, 2007. 9-37.

“Ted Allan.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada, n.d. The Mexican Suitcase. Dir. Trischa Ziff. 212 Berlin and Mallerich Films, 2011. DVD. Vautour, Bart. “Introduction.” This Time a Better Earth, by Ted Allan. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2015. xiii-xxxiii.


Erin Wunker, Daniel Marcotte, Emily Robins Sharpe, Kaarina Mikalson, Bart Vautour